Internet of things (IoT)
Internet of things (IoT) is a vast network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enable these objects to exchange data. Many experts are of the view that the IoT will consist of about 30 billion objects by 2020. “Things” in the IoT sense tells us about a very huge of things such as monitoring the heart, showing live feeds of wild animals in different environments, automobiles in which there are built-in sensors, and some of the devices that help the firefighters in search and rescue operations. The concept of a network of smart devices was initiated in 1982 with a modified Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University becoming the first ever Internet-connected device, and this idea of the Internet of Things gained popularity in 1999 through MIT’s ID Center.
Applications of Internet of Things (IoT)
There are extensive applications of the Internet of Things in our daily life.Some of these applications are discussed below:
A huge portion of IoT devices is specially created for consumer use. Examples of such devices include connected car, entertainment, smart home, wearable technology, connected health, ovens and refrigerators or freezer that uses Wi-Fi for remote monitoring. We will discuss some of these devices below:
IoT devices are part of the larger concept of Smart Home, they are also known as domotics. Large smart home systems utilize the main controller to provide the user with a central control for all other devices. One application of smart home is to provide assistance and help for disabled and elder people. These home systems use assistive technology to accommodate an owner’s specific disabilities. Voice control can assist the user with vision and mobility limitations while alert systems can be connected directly to devices. The smart homes also have additional safety features like sensors that monitor for medical emergencies. Smart Home in this way can provide users with more comfortable life.
If you are on your way to your meeting, your car could have an access to your calendar and it already knows the best route to reach your place. If the traffic is high your car might send a test to the other party notifying them that you would be late. All these facilities would be available through the Internet of Things.
By the application of the Internet of Things, your refrigerator can tell you when it would be out of milk, texting you on your smartphones when it’s internal cameras saw there was no milk present inside. And it can also tell whether the milk carton is outdated.
The term “Enterprise IoT”, OR EIoT is used to refer all those devices which are used in business. Large companies will observe a more immediate and high profit from the widespread use of IoT devices. The problem is people nowadays have very limited time and also limited accuracy, that means they are not that much good in capturing data as are the computers, computers know all those things which they need to know. By using the Internet of Things we can reduce waste, lost and cost. We would easily know when things needed replacement, repairing or recalling.
The key application of the Internet of Things is the monitoring and controlling operations of urban and rural infrastructures like bridges and railway tracks.The IoT infrastructure is used for monitoring and controlling any changes in structural conditions that are against the safety and can cause risk. It can also be used for scheduling repair activities by coordinating tasks between service providers and users of these facilities. Usage of IoT devices for monitoring and controlling infrastructure is likely to improve incident management and emergency conditions.
Applications in Agriculture
The IoT contributes significantly towards innovating methods of farming and agriculture. Many challenges have come in farming due to increase in population and climate change, so it has become necessary to utilize IoT. The integration of wireless sensors with agricultural mobile apps helps in collecting information about the environmental conditions such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind. IoT can improve the farming techniques i.e they can improve the quality and quantity and minimize the risks and wastes.
Integration of sensing and actuation systems, connected to the Internet, will optimize the energy consumption. It is expected that IoT devices will be integrated into all forms of energy consuming devices to balance power generation. Such devices will provide an opportunity to the users to control their devices by remote.
Environmental monitoring applications of IoT use sensors to help in protecting the environment. By monitoring air and water quality, atmospheric and soil conditions. Other applications like earthquake and tsunami early-warning systems can be used by emergency services to provide more effective aid.
Applications in Medical and Healthcare
IoT devices can be used to enable remote health monitoring. These devices can range from blood pressure and heart rate to advanced devices capable of monitoring specialized implants such as advanced hearing aids. Some hospitals also have “smart beds” that can detect when the beds are occupied and when a patient is attempting to get up from it, in addition to this it can adjust itself to ensure appropriate pressure and support is given to the patient without interaction with nurses. The Research and Development Corporation (DEKA) is a company that creates prosthetic limbs has also created a battery-powered arm that uses myoelectricity, a device that converts muscle group sensations into motor control.
IoT Security and Privacy
Many of the devices become interconnected with each other, security and privacy have become the major concern among the businesses. Cyber attacks are also a growing threat as more of the devices are connected with each other. Hackers can hack the connected cars and even people’s homes. As a result, many of the companies are focusing on cybersecurity in order to secure the security of the data.
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